Oil on canvas, 147 × 198.5 cm. The rebellion was led by Simon bar Kochba, who was declared to be the messiah by an influential sage named Rabbi Akiva. The Destruction of the Temple at Jerusalem by Nicolas Poussin (1637). Hadrian thought he had put an end to Israel, but he didn’t reckon on Israel’s God. ©Leen Ritmeyer Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. The city of Jerusalem during the time of Aelia Capitolina. The entire documentary on the Roman Siege of Jerusalem in 70 AD. The Wars of the Jews, Book 6. One narrative suggests that at first Hadrian was sympathetic to the Jews and set out to rebuild the city and even the Jewish Temple. In 135 AD,, Hadrian built a new city on the ruins of the old Jerusalem. The discovery consists of a fragment of a stone engraved with an official Latin inscription dedicated to the Roman emperor Hadrian. Similarly to Epiphanius, Eusebius of Caesarea recounts how Pella was a refuge for Jerusalem Christians who were fleeing the First Jewish–Roman War in the 1st century CE. This war was only brought to a conclusion by the siege and destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem by Titus, the son of the Emperor Vespasian. Called the Bar Kokhba revolt, it was led by Simon ben Kosiba. One can only conjecture as to what might have happened to Jews, Christians, and all of subsequent history had Jerusalem not fallen and the Temple endured. Jews were forbidden to enter the city except once a year to mourn the destruction of their temple. The whole city razed ground and for a couple of years Jerusalem bore no remarkable mention in the historical record. 135 AD (About 1900 years ago) The Romans, under Hadrian, crushed a second Jewish rebellion for independence in a three-year war ending in 135 AD. Herod built his famous harbour of Sebastos (Greek for Augustus) with Roman engineers, Roman technology and Roman marine concrete.The port is regarded as Herod's greatest work. In the report of his victory to the Roman Senate, however, Hadrian omitted the customary salutation: “I and the army are well.” On the old Jewish city of Jerusalem, Hadrian erected a … Hadrian changed the country’s name from Judea to Syria Palestina. Dio's Roman History, Loeb series, A newly uncovered large slab of limestone with an official commemoration to the Roman Emperor Hadrian may help researchers understand the events that led to the Bar Kokhba revolt in the early second century, experts said. The Holy Land After the Destruction of Jerusalem By John F. Fink In the year 135, the Roman Emperor Hadrian conquered Jerusalem for the second time (the first was in the year 70) and thought he put an end to it for all time by making it a pagan city named Aelia Capitolina dedicated to … Hadrian resolved to stamp the Jews and their religion out of existence. The Second Temple was destroyed by the Romans on the same date, Tisha B'Av, in 70 AD. . In the beginning of his reign, which began in the year 117, Hadrian proved to have been on good terms with the Jews who had remained in Judea after the destruction of the Second Temple in the year 70. Bar Kochba's rebellion had disastrous results. Hadrian visited Jerusalem in 130 CE and found the city in need of rebuilding from its destruction in the Roman Jewish War (66-73 CE). External links. Josephus Describes the Romans' Sack of Jerusalem. The Jews thought he planned to rebuild Jerusalem for the Jews. Hadrian ordered the destruction of much of Jerusalem and the exile of the Jews after the second Jewish revolt. The monument’s construction is testament to Hadrian’s legacy as Rome’s grand builder, having been erected after Jerusalem was rebuilt following its destruction in 70 CE. This massive battle is one of the most stunning of all antiquity. The first revolt led to the destruction of Jerusalem and the holy Temple in the year 70. It's the twist of fate that for all this to happen, the Jews had to vanquish Hadrian completely, return to their land, establish sovereignty, resurrect the Hebrew language, establish a mighty army, industry, the best agriculture on earth, hi-tech, culture, song, dance, reestablish a nation, rebuild Jerusalem as their capital and settle every town and village that Hadrian destroyed. Historians hope that the new find will shed light on the era of Bar Kochba and the role of the Tenth Legion at that time in Jerusalem. A limestone fragment found in Jerusalem holds a rare engraving dedicated to the Roman emperor Hadrian, who ruled from A.D. 117 to 138. S olomon's Temple in Jerusalem was destroyed by the Babylonians in 587 BC on the date in the Jewish calendar 9th of Av, or Tisha B'Av. Jewish Jerusalem was once again blotted out and Aelia Capitolina was built on its site as had been planned. The revolt was cruelly suppressed, and after the first destruction of the city at the hands of Titus in 70 AD, Hadrian led the second destruction of the city. Aelia Capitolina (Traditional English Pronunciation: / ˈ iː l i ə ˌ k æ p ɪ t ə ˈ l aɪ n ə /; Latin in full: COLONIA AELIA CAPITOLINA) was a Roman colony, built under Emperor Hadrian on the site of Jewish Jerusalem, which had been almost totally razed after the siege of 70 AD, this being one apparent reason for the Bar Kokhba revolt of 132–136 AD. Depicts the destruction and looting of the Second Temple by the Roman army led by Titus. Aelia Capitolina was a Roman colony, built under the emperor Hadrian on the site of Jerusalem, which was in ruins following the siege of 70 AD, leading in part to the Bar Kokhba revolt of 132–136 AD. Aelia Capitolina remained the official name of Jerusalem until 638 AD, when the Arabs conquered the city and kept the first part of it as 'إلياء' (Iliyā'). In the ruins of Jerusalem, Emperor Hadrian ordered the construction of Colonia Aelia Capitolina in dedication to Jupiter Capitolinus, and to Hadrian himself. A rare archaeological find was recently discovered in Jerusalem. After the Roman destruction of 70 A.D., the 10th Legion set up an encampment south of the Hippicus Tower on the Western Hill of Jerusalem. Rome's destruction of the Temple began in 66 AD, when Roman Emperor Nero appointed General Vespasian to put down a revolt in Judea. Second Jewish Revolt, (ad 132–135), Jewish rebellion against Roman rule in Judaea.The revolt was preceded by years of clashes between Jews and Romans in the area. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck. The Destruction of Jerusalem by Titus by Wilhelm von Kaulbach (1846). Jerusalem The Clash Of Ancient Civilizations Martin Goodman later, after further violent rebellions and the city’s final destruction, Hadrian built the new city A magisterial history of the titanic struggle between the Roman and Jewish worlds that led to the destruction of Jerusalem. S ixty years after the destruction of the second temple under the leadership of Titus, there was a final Jewish revolt (AD 132-135). HADRIAN'S DESTRUCTION OF JERUSALEM IN 135 C.E. Hadrian Hadranus Publius Aelinus was emperor of Rome from 117 to 138. The fate of Jerusalem following the destruction of the Second Temple (70 CE) and prior to the Bar Kokhba revolt (132-136 AD) is one of the major issues in the history of the city and in terms of the Jewish people's connection to it. From Jerusalem Priest to Roman Jew: On Josephus and the Paradigms of Ancient Judaism. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem scholars Avner Ecker and Hannah Cotton, who translated the stone’s six lines of Latin, said that the inscription was dedicated by the Legio X Fretensis (“Tenth legion of the sea straits”) to Hadrian in the year 129/130 C.E. After a long period of instability, many Jews of Judaea revolted against Roman rule. Jews were prohibited from entering Jerusalem on pain of death, except one day during Tisha B’Av, the festival that commemorates the destruction of the Temple. Romans destroy and plow Jerusalem. Siege of Jerusalem, Roman blockade of the city in 70 CE, during the First Jewish Revolt. It was during his reign that the Jews of Israel revolted for a second time against the Roman occupation of their country. For their part, Christians attributed the destruction of Jerusalem to God’s retribution against the Jews for having crucified Christ. Hadrian's decision to re-found Jerusalem, which had lain in ruins since its destruction by the Romans in 70 CE, as a pagan colony, clashed with Jewish custom and religious belief. In 129-30 the Emperor Hadrian toured the eastern provinces and probably visited Jerusalem. He sold all Jewish prisoners into slavery, forbade the teaching of the Torah , renamed the province Syria Palaestina, and changed Jerusalem’s name to Aelia Capitolina (although scholars are divided over whether to place Jerusalem’s name change before or after the revolt). They were permitted to enter only on the 9th of Av to mourn their losses in the revolt. Although the region was still in a state of ruin following this, Hadrian visited Judaea and the ruined city of Jerusalem … The finding is both rare and tremendous, and … Epiphanius claims that after the destruction, some returned to Jerusalem. After nationalistic uprisings, Hadrian flattened the city and in 135 A.D. built a new one on its ruins and called it Aelia Capitolina. Jerusalem was turned into a pagan city called Aelia Capitolina and the Jews were forbidden to live there. Caesarea: Emperor Hadrian upgrades the city of Herod An example from Caesarea provides some guidance for what may have happened in Jerusalem. That revolt was crushed by the Emperor Vespasian and his son Titus Three extant bronze portraits of the Emperor Hadrian (117 – 138 CE) are brought together for a first-time display in the Israel museum, marking a symbolic return of the Emperor to Jerusalem, whose last visit to the city was in 130 CE. Image Credit : Carole Raddato. The Romans eventually forced the rebels to retreat to Jerusalem, besieged the city, breached its walls, and destroyed the Second Temple. Works related to The War of the Jews at Wikisource; Media related to First Jewish-Roman War at Wikimedia Commons; In Depth Lecture on the First Roman-Jewish War and Destruction of the 2nd Tempe Thinktorah.org ROMAN HISTORY, BOOK LXIX, written by CASSIUS DIO COCCEIANUS in c. 222 C.E. Because the war had cost the lives of Roman heroes, the Jews were thenceforth forbidden to enter Jerusalem upon penalty of death. Church and synagogue have gone their separate ways ever since. Hadrian attempted to destroy every connection Jerusalem had with the Jewish people. The occasion of the Bar Kokhba revolt was Emperor Hadrian’s (Publius Aelius Hadrianus) (r. 117-138) plan to build a Roman city over the ruins of Jerusalem. Pella is alleged to have been the site of one of Christianity's earliest churches.