Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The Israeli-occupied territories include the West Bank, 5,879 km2 (2,270 sq mi), East Jerusalem, 70 km2 (27 sq mi) and the Golan Heights, 1,150 km2 (444 sq mi).  It is bounded to the north by Lebanon, the northeast by Syria, the east by Jordan and the West Bank, and to the southwest by Egypt.  In terms of religion, 76% are Jewish, 16% Muslim, 2% Christian, 2% Druze, and 4% are unclassified by choice. An Empire in the Holy Land: Historical Geography of the British Administration in Palestine, 1917–1929, Gideon Biger, St. Martin's Press and Magnes Press, 1994, pp.67–69.  South of Jerusalem, also mainly within the West Bank, are the Judean Hills, including Mount Hebron. The last segment is the Southern Coastal Plain, which extends south around the Gaza Strip. The area was bordered by … Assumes 35,000 Palestinians estimated by B'Tselem to be living in the Seam Zone are included in the 150,000 OCHA estimate", "West Bank population. The southern Negev is mainly sandstone rock with veins of granite. The Coastal Plain. From north to south these are: Kishon, Hadera, Alexander, Poleg, and Yarkon. , Inland (east) of the coastal plain lies the central highland region. Israel on a World Wall Map: Israel is one of nearly 200 countries illustrated on our Blue Ocean Laminated Map of the World. Students of the World => Countries of the World => Israel. Unlike much of the Middle East which is rich in lucrative crude oil, Israel has limited natural resources. The sparsely populated Negev comprises the southern half of Israel. Since 1948, US taxpayers send an average $8,000,000 PER DAY to Israel. Israel has a chronic water shortage, and its hydraulic resources are fully utilized: about three-fourths for irrigation and the remainder for industrial and household water use. In rare occasions, snow gets to the northern mountain peaks and only in extremely rare occasions even to the coast. Running the length of the country from north to south along its eastern border … Israel has a distinct geographical identity that heavily influenced its early settlers. An Empire in the Holy Land: Historical Geography of the British Administration in Palestine, 1917–1929, Gideon Biger, St. Martin's Press and Magnes Press, 1994, pp.46–52. Based on total area of 5,640km2 including East Jerusalem and excluding water. The Mediterranean coastal plain: A fertile (and mostly flat) coastal plain fronts the Mediterranean Sea coastline of Israel. On the eve of World War I it was described by Encyclopædia Britannica as a "nebulous geographical concept. Height : -408 m (Dead Sea) Max. View Images.  Along the Mount Carmel range is Hof HaCarmel, or the Carmel Coastal Plain. Ancient Israel was located in what scholars refer to as the Ancient Near East, an area around what we today call the Middle East. When most people think of ancient Israel, they think of a hot, dry desert where people lived in tents. Inland, the northern region contains the Mount Carmel mountain range, which is followed inland by the fertile Jezreel Valley, and then the hilly Galilee region. " The Sykes-Picot Treaty in 1916 divided the region that later became Palestine into four political units.  In the extreme south, rainfall averages near 30 millimeters (1.18 in) annually; in the north, average annual rainfall exceeds 900 millimeters (35.4 in).  Given the fragile political situation of the Middle East region and the presence there of major holy sites, a quake reaching magnitude 7 on the Richter scale could have dire consequences for world peace. The Court found that Israel must immediately cease the construction of the Wall and repeal or render ineffective all measures taken which unlawfully restrict or impede the exercise of the rights of the inhabitants of the West Bank; furthermore, Israel was found to be under an obligation to make reparation for all damage caused.  The high plateau area of Ramat HaNegev stands between 370 meters (1,214 ft) and 520 meters (1,706 ft) above sea level with extreme temperatures in summer and winter. Israel has signed many international environmental agreements and is party to:, Israel's rural space includes several unique kinds of settlements, notably the moshav and the kibbutz. In a previous geological epoch the lake was part of a large inland sea which extended from the Hula marshes in northern Israel to 64 kilometers (40 mi) south of the Dead Sea. Israel has a small coastline on the Red Sea in the south. YEHOVAH's true Church is made up of people from physical Israel ONLY -- those predominantly of "fair skin" and "Caucasian in physique and appearance." These include copper, phosphates, bromide, potash, clay, sand, sulfur, asphalt, and manganese. More than 70% of the average rainfall in Israel falls between November and March; June through September are usually rainless. ). , Prior to the establishment of the British Mandate for Palestine, there was no clear-cut definition of the geographical and territorial limits of the area known as "Palestine." Israel has both types of borders, geometric and physical boundaries. Figure shown calculated from other figures sourced on page", "West Bank population. Features of the Land. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Differences in land elevations relative to the sea level are represented by color. It is the largest natural gas reserve ever discovered in Israel. Most of the country’s remaining streams are ephemeral and flow seasonally as wadis.  Furthermore, the effects of the use of chemical fertilizers, and pesticides are issues facing the country. The Coastal Plain.  The Negev is also sub-divided into five different ecological regions: northern, western and central Negev, the high plateau and the Arabah Valley. Omissions? Vegetation & Animals Water Features A war resulting from Israel Geography – Regions Coastal Plain region- stretches from the Lebanese border in the north to Gaza (Aza in Hebrew) to the south, runs parallel to the Mediterranean Sea and is composed of a sandy shoreline, bordered by stretches of fertile farmland extending up to 40 km. South of this, running to Nahal Shikma, is the Central Coastal Plain, also known as the Western Negev. Israel fought a series of wars against neighbouring Arab states during the next 35 years, which have resulted in ongoing disputes over territory and the status of refugees. This game is part of a tournament. The Deep Jordan Valley.  The Dead Sea is 1,020 square kilometers (394 sq mi) in size and, at 420 meters (1,378 ft) below sea level, is the lowest surface point on the earth.  It is ranked 153 on the List of countries and outlying territories by total area. The city of Tel Aviv is on the coast and has a population of 1.2 million, 99% of which is Jewish.  While stringent construction regulations are currently in place and recently built structures are earthquake-safe, as of 2007 the majority of the buildings in Israel were older than these regulations and many public buildings as well as 50,000 residential buildings did not meet the new standards and were "expected to collapse" if exposed to a strong quake. Its total area is 8,019 square miles (20,770 square kilometers), slightly smaller than New Jersey. Israel is a small country with a relatively diverse topography, consisting of a lengthy coastal plain, highlands in the north and central regions, and the Negev desert in the south. The bed of the lake forms part of the Jordan Rift Valley. The Israeli Coastal Plain on the shores of the Mediterranean is home to seventy percent of the nation's population. The areas of the country most cultivated are those receiving more than 300 millimeters (11.8 in) of rainfall annually, making approximately one-third of the country cultivable.  The climate is as such due to Israel's location between the subtropical aridity of the Sahara and the Arabian deserts, and the subtropical humidity of the Levant and Eastern Mediterranean. ). Students analyze a variety of maps to create a map of Israel and the Palestinian territories’ physical geography, and reason about Jerusalem’s location. The territorial waters of Israel extend into the sea to a distance of twelve nautical miles measured from the appropriate baseline.. The coastal plain was the highway of commerce and conquest for centuries. Rugged terrain, running from Judea though Samaria and into upper Galilee. But seriously, it depends on what you mean by “common.” Widespread, or shared by almost everybody? Israel is on the eastern Mediterranean, bordered by Lebanon and Syria to the north, the Palestine National Authority (West Bank) and Jordan to the east, and Egypt to the south. The Great Desert ... Israel in the First Century. Palestine Geography consists of four regions in the country. Updates? Map by Scott Richardson. The Jordan River, which marks part of the frontier between Israel and Jordan, flows southward through the rift from Dan on Israel’s northern frontier, where it is 500 feet (152 metres) above sea level, first into the Ḥula Valley (Hebrew: ʿEmeq HaḤula), then into the freshwater Lake Tiberias, also known as the Sea of Galilee (Hebrew: Yam Kinneret), which lies 686 feet (209 metres) below sea level. Despite its small size, Israel is home to a variety of geographic features, from the Negev desert in the south to the mountain ranges of the Galilee, Carmel, and the Golan in the north. In total, Israel has 74 cities, 14 of which have populations of over 100,000.  A peninsula juts out into the lake from the eastern shore, south of which the lake is shallow, less than 6 meters (19.7 ft) deep. Running the length of the country from north to south along its eastern border is the northern terminus of the Great Rift Valley. Physical Features of the Middle East. The Central Mountains Plateau. The statistics provided by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics include the annexed East Jerusalem and Golan Heights, but exclude the West Bank and Gaza Strip.  The plain is traversed by several short streams. Physical Features of the Holy Land.  Rainfall varies from season to season and from year to year, particularly in the Negev Desert. The borders between Israel and The Mediterranean Sea is a physical boundary. Figure calculated from other sourced figures in table. Whilst measures have been taken to irrigate and grow in the desert, the amount of water needed here poses issues. From AC/DC to Bruce Springsteen, test your knowledge of the origins of various musicians and groups in this quiz. The four regions of Palestine Geography are Jordan valley and Ghawr, coastal and inner plains, Mountain and Hills and Southern Desert. The Sharon Plain is the next section, running from Nahal Taninim (south of Zikhron Ya'akov) to Tel Aviv's Yarkon River. Israel borders Lebanon, Syria, The Golan Heights, The West Bank, The Jordon, The Gaza Strip and Egypt. , East of the central highlands lies the Jordan Rift Valley, which is a small part of the 6,500 kilometers (4,039 mi)-long Syrian-East African Rift. , The far northern coastline of the country has some chalk landscapes best seen at Rosh HaNikra, a chalk cliff into which a series of grottoes have been eroded.. The boundary demarcation at this time did not introduce geographical changes near the frontiers and both sides of the border were controlled by the British administration. Natural hazards facing the country include sandstorms which sometimes occur during spring in the desert south, droughts which are usually concentrated in summer months, flash floods which create great danger in the deserts due to their lack of notice, and regular earthquakes, most of which are small, although there is a constant risk due to Israel's location along the Jordan Rift Valley. Political System Israel, now being a seperate state from Palestine, was first recognized by the US as a new country. The Other Side of the Jordan. This area is Israel's most densely populated. Ancient Israel began in an area known as Canaan, which became modern day Israel, Jordan and Lebanon. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Gaza, a small coastal strip between Israel and Egypt, is claimed by the Palestine National Authority, but under de facto rule by the militant group Hamas. , Israel is divided east–west by a mountain range running north to south along the coast. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Despite continuing tensions, however, Israel concluded peace treaties with several neighbouring Arab states during the final quarter of the 20th century. The principal drainage system comprises Lake Tiberias and the Jordan River. The only major break... 3. Calculation based on East Jerusalem area of 346km2 being 97% west of the barrier, and 9.5% of the West bank including East Jerusalem being in the Seam Zone", "Area C Humanitarian Response Plan Fact Sheet September 2010. The Great Rift Valley, a long fissure in Earth’s crust, begins beyond the northern frontier of Israel and forms a series of valleys running generally south, the length of the country, to the Gulf of Aqaba.  Geographical features in these territories will be noted as such. Yad Vashem in Jerusalem is a memorial to Jewish victims of the Holocaust. Differences in land elevations relative to the sea level are represented by color. Despite its small size, Israel is home to a variety of geographic features, from the Negev desert in the south to the mountain ranges of the Galilee, Carmel, and the Golan in the north. , South of the Kinneret lies the saltwater Dead Sea which forms the border between Israel and Jordan and is 418 meters (1,371 ft) below sea level, making it the lowest water surface on Earth. Israel Map - Physical Map of Israel. East of the coastal plain lies the central highland region. The narrow and discontinuous coastal plain along the Mediterranean Sea features both sandy bays and rocky beaches. The area was a part of the Roman Empire and, later, the Byzantine Empire before falling under the control of the fledgling Islamic caliphate in the 7th century ce.  In 2009, significant reserves of natural gas were discovered at the Tamar 1 offshore drilling site, 90 kilometers west of Haifa. The coastal plain is a narrow strip about 115 miles (185 km) long that widens to about 25 miles (40 km) in the south. Lake Tiberias is 165 square kilometers (64 sq mi) in size and, depending on the season and rainfall, is at about 213 meters (699 ft) below sea level. The pear-shaped lake is 23 kilometres (14 mi) long from north to south, with a maximum width of 13 kilometres (8 mi) in the north, covering 166 square kilometers (64 sq mi). , Thunderstorms and hail are common throughout the rainy season and waterspouts occasionally hit the Mediterranean coast, capable of causing only minor damage. Geography of Israel Despite its small size, about 290 miles (470 km) north-to-south and 85 miles (135 km) east-to-west at its widest point, Israel has four geographic regions—the Mediterranean coastal plain, the hill regions of northern and central Israel, the Great Rift Valley, and the Negev—and a wide range of unique physical features and microclimates. , For statistical purposes, the country has three metropolitan areas; Gush Dan-Tel Aviv (population 3,150,000), Haifa (population 996,000), and Beersheba (population 531,600). The mountains of Galilee are separated from the hills of the Israeli-occupied West Bank to the south by the fertile Plain of Esdraelon (Hebrew: ʿEmeq Yizreʿel), which, running approximately northwest to southeast, connects the coastal plain with the Great Rift Valley.  The central highlands average 610 meters (2,001 ft) in height and reach their highest elevation at Har Meron, at 1,208 meters (3,963 ft), in Galilee near Safed. a. Coastal Plain, from Philistia to Phoenicia.  Israel also has a number of areas of karst topography. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map: ... • This river is a main source of water for Israel, Jordan, parts of Syria, … The geography of Israel is very diverse, with desert conditions in the south, and snow-capped mountains in the north. How well do you know your musical places?  In the north of this region lie the mountains and hills of Upper Galilee and Lower Galilee, which are generally 500 meters (1,640 ft) to 700 meters (2,297 ft) in height, although they reach a maximum height of 1,208 meters (3,963 ft) at Mount Meron.  In Israel the Rift Valley is dominated by the Jordan River, the Sea of Galilee (an important freshwater source also known as Lake Tiberias and Lake Kinneret), and the Dead Sea. It lies at the junction of three continents: Europe, Asia and Africa. Height : 1208 m (Har Meron) Map of Israel. , The numerous limestone and sandstone layers of the Israeli mountains serve as aquifers through which water flows from the west flank to the east. Even before the mandate, the desire for a Jewish homeland prompted a small number of Jews to immigrate to Palestine, a migration that grew dramatically during the second quarter of the 20th century with the increased persecution of Jews worldwide and subsequent Holocaust perpetrated by Nazi Germany.  The Jordan River continues its course from the southern end of Lake Tiberias (forming the boundary between the West Bank and Jordan) to its terminus in the highly saline Dead Sea. Noses, ears, the usual. Among the various nations or city-states in this area, Israel evolved into a nation with a monarch… Author of.  The Jordan, Israel's largest river (322 kilometers (200 mi)), originates in the Dan, Baniyas, and Hasbani rivers near Mount Hermon in the Anti-Lebanon Mountains and flows south through the drained Hula Basin into the freshwater Lake Tiberias. Geography. Desertification is also a risk possible on the desert fringe, whilst air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions and groundwater pollution from industrial and domestic waste are also issues facing the country. Each district is then further divided into sub-districts. To the north is the lake's greatest depth. Despite its small size, about 290 miles (470 km) north-to-south and 85 miles (135 km) east-to-west at its widest point, Israel has four geographic regions—the Mediterranean coastal plain, the hill regions of northern and central Israel, the Great Rift Valley, and the Negev—and a wide range of unique physical features and microclimates. ( east ) of rain PER year, with light and partially sandy soils, Hadera Alexander... 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