Note: The above quote is included to specifically inform readers that there is no evidence that predation by chimps is a "new" behavior, and that there is extensive, complex, baboon/chimp interaction. Almost all the studies in animal language acquisition have been done with "great apes", and though there is continuing dispute as to whether they demonstrate real language abilities, there is no doubt that they involve significant feats of learning. FFH: Gorillas are total vegetarians. GO TO PART 7 - Insights about Human Nutrition & Digestion from Comparative Physiology The use of tools has been repeatedly demonstrated; more recently, the manufacture of tools has been documented, both in the wild and in laboratory tests. This reasoning suggests that the "imitation" argument is dubious at best. In 1985, an influential article highlighted in my video The Problem With the Paleo Diet Argument was published proposing that our chronic diseases stem from a disconnect between … Animal food consumption common Males tend to … [T]he Gombe chimpanzees removed 8% of the local baboon population in 1968-1969 (Teleki, 1973a) and 8-13% of the local colobus population in 1973-1974 (Busse, 1977). FFH: Orangutans consume 2% insects; from p. 11: "the 2% digression may be seen as incidental and insignificant." 8-9). Many primate species once considered herbivorous are now known to expand the animal-matter portion of their diet to high levels when it is possible to do so... See below, History of hominoid taxonomy, for a discussion of changes in scientific classification and terminology regarding hominoids. This reasoning suggests that the "imitation" argument is dubious at best. Teleki [1981, pp. This particular ancient human seems to have missed the memo and stuck to mostly seafood. Use of the cultural terms "vegan" and "fruitarian" versus "folivore" and "frugivore" REPLY/COMMENTS: Both lowland and mountain gorillas consume insects, deliberately and indirectly, that is, on the vegetation they consume. Apart from humans and gorillas, apes eat a predominantly frugivorous diet, mostly fruit, but supplemented with a variety of other foods. The reality that primates may frequently switch dietary categories makes the situation even more complicated. Hladik and Viroben (1974) have shown that this insect food is nutritionally important in order to compensate for a deficiency of certain amino acids in the plant foods, even in the rich environment of the Gabon rain-forest. Except for gorillas and humans, hominoids are agile climbers of trees. Another problem with the "imitation" argument is that imitative learning in captive chimps is common, but in wild chimpanzees it is rare; see Boesch and Tomasello  for discussion on this point. Imitation is much more easily demonstrated in "great apes" than in other primate species. Kortlandt  also discusses insect consumption by chimps (p. 133): For other uses, see, Changes in taxonomy and terminology ("hominid" v "hominin"), Although Dawkins is clear that he uses "apes" for Hominoidea, he also uses "great apes" in ways which exclude humans. It is interesting to note that most (but not all) of the references cited therein are encyclopedia entries--which usually do not reflect the latest research. Our planet is dying and if we don’t change what we are doing, we are destined for extinction. Kortlandt  reports that (p. 133), "orang-utans eat honey, insects and, occasionally, bird's eggs, but no vertebrates." GO TO PART 1 - Brief Overview: What is the Relevance of Comparative Anatomical and Physiological "Proofs"? The justice of this conclusion will be admitted: for in the first place, we must bear in mind the comparative insignificance for classification of the great development of the brain in man, and that the strongly marked differences between the skulls of man and the Quadrumana (lately insisted upon by Bischoff, Aeby, and others) apparently follow from their differently developed brains. Chimps and apes are genetically so similar to humans - and their human … Over and above the reality that predation and meat-eating by chimps is widespread, the claim that chimps do so in imitation of humans or baboons is both unproven and dubious. SEE REFERENCE LIST GO TO PART 7 - Insights about Human Nutrition & Digestion from Comparative Physiology  Humans and other apes occasionally eat other primates. Humans are by far the most numerous of the ape species, in fact outnumbering all other primates by a factor of several thousand to one. This reasoning suggests that the "imitation" argument is dubious at best. However, seasonal changes in great ape diets and the limited dietary diver-sity of the humans studied willinfluence the interpreta-tion of these data sets. Drawing boundaries between diet categories is non-trivial Furthermore, human and great ape skin fibroblasts showed only modest differences in … Though gut proportions differ, overall gut anatomy and the pattern of digestive kinetics of extant apes and humans are very similar. The Natural Human Diet. The history of hominoid taxonomy is complex and somewhat confusing. In a letter to Johann Georg Gmelin dated 25 February 1747, Linnaeus wrote: Accordingly, Johann Friedrich Blumenbach in the first edition of his Manual of Natural History (1779), proposed that the primates be divided into the Quadrumana (four-handed, i.e. Additional evidence on the variability of orangutan diets is given in Knott [1998, p. 40]. Fossils and molecular data are two independent sources of information that should in principle provide consistent inferences of when evolutionary lineages diverged. Our children’s future is threatened by an achievement gap caused in large part by their inability to learn on a diet of processed foods and sugar served in schools. We are feeding our kids a diet that is making them anti-social in their behavior, promoting trouble focusing/ADD, and resulting not… First, we have to look at the digestive system of the great apes, which include gorillas, chimpanzees, orangutangs and bonobos. The interaction between baboons and chimps is quite interesting and serves to illuminate the shallow nature of the "imitation" argument. Apes are herbivores for the most part, but they also may eat small animals or bugs to supplement their diet. Due to the difficulties in estimating weights of foods consumed, the 2% figure is probably by feeding time. One may hear an advocate claiming that "apes are vegans," then later the same advocate might criticize others for using the same terminology--i.e., "apes are NOT vegans"; the specific criticism being that a biological term is more appropriate (e.g., folivore, frugivore, faunivore). 166, 168]: GO TO NEXT PART OF ARTICLE The booklet Fit Food for Humanity [Natural Hygiene Press 1982] makes what could be considered the classical comparative argument: humans vs. anthropoid apes. https://fanaticcook.blogspot.com/2009/06/are-ape-diets-suited-to-humans.html Chimp/Baboon Interaction. They noted (pp. High variability of primate diets SEE REFERENCE LIST Note: The above quote is included to specifically inform readers that there is no evidence that predation by chimps is a "new" behavior, and that there is extensive, complex, baboon/chimp interaction. "Any simian known on the Mediterranean during the Middle Ages; monkey or ape"; cf. †Pliobatidae What if humans cast aside processed foods and saturated fats in favour of the sort of diet our ape-like ancestors once ate? It has been proposed that anatomical differences in human and great ape guts arose in response to species-specific diets and energy demands. For this reason all attempts at transplants from apes or baboons to man have been disastrous failures. Humans are by far the most numerous of the ape species, in fact outnumbering all other primates by a factor of several thousand to one. Once evolutionary adaptation occurs, the "imitation" behavior would no longer be an imitation (supposing it were that, in some hazily conceived past)--it is natural. ["Trophic" refers to the different levels of the food chain.] Other writers (elsewhere, not in FFH) suggest that chimps eat meat in imitation of baboons.  Modern biologists and primatologists refer to apes that are not human as "non-human" apes. "Vegetarian" apes: a misconception of the past Obesity rates and chronic diseases have run rampant. Of further interest here is the information that termites are known to contain significant quantities of vitamin B-12; see Wakayama et al. By Charles Q. Choi 15 December 2009. Chimpanzees in different parts of Africa have developed tools that are used in food acquisition, demonstrating a form of animal culture.. Another problem with the "imitation" argument is that imitative learning in captive chimps is common, but in wild chimpanzees it is rare; see Boesch and Tomasello  for discussion on this point. In this article, a primary objective is to communicate concepts clearly and accurately but without undue complexity. Therefore, cladistically, apes, catarrhines and related contemporary extinct groups such as Parapithecidaea are monkeys as well, for any consistent definition of "monkey". How is it possible, then, that the primates serving as prey to chimpanzees in Gombe National Park, and possibly also at other sites, have not developed more successful defensive tactics? Humans on Western or vegan diets had comparable total RBC plasmalogen levels, but the latter group showed moderately higher levels of plasmalogens with a C18:1 moiety at the sn-1 position. PART 1 PART 2 PART 3 PART 4 PART 5 PART 6 PART 7 PART 8 PART 9 GO TO PART 4 - Intelligence, Evolution of the Human Brain, and Diet Return to beginning of article Hladik and Viroben (1974) have shown that this insect food is nutritionally important in order to compensate for a deficiency of certain amino acids in the plant foods, even in the rich environment of the Gabon rain-forest. Fruits slathered in fresh vegetation offers a densely nutritious food source and some happy stomachs. Why Humans Outlive Apes. ("FFH" is used as an abbreviation for Fit Food for Humanity in the material below.) Insect Consumption by Chimps is Universal. Chimpanzees vary considerably in size and appearance, but they stand approximately 1–1.7 meters (3–5.5 feet) tall when erect and weigh about 32–60 kg (70–130 pounds). GO TO PART 8 - Further Issues in the Debate over Omnivorous vs. Vegetarian Diets Regarding chimpanzee predation, Teleki [1981, p. 305] reports that: Regarding consumption of animal foods by primates, Hamilton and Busse [1978, p. 761] note: [T]he Gombe chimpanzees removed 8% of the local baboon population in 1968-1969 (Teleki, 1973a) and 8-13% of the local colobus population in 1973-1974 (Busse, 1977). Comparative morphology of human and ape guts. Additionally, some of the rationalizations by dietary advocates that have been advanced as part of attempts to preserve the myth of "vegetarian apes" are discussed in "Selected Myths of Raw Foods." One month a frugivore, later a folivore: how to classify? The diet was plant based, like the diet eaten by apes, who genetically are our closest relatives. Human diets are sometimes substantially different from that of other apes due in part to the development of technology and a wide range of habitation.  As such, this use of "apes" represented a paraphyletic grouping, meaning that, even though all species of apes were descended from a common ancestor, this grouping did not include all the descendant species, because humans were excluded from being among the apes.[e]. 330-331] comments on: When discussing dietary categories, it is very easy to forget that extremes are rare in nature, and instead focus exclusively on the central food (or food category) consumed, and ignore the other foods consumed. Chimp/Baboon Interaction. 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